Afdrukken

Fossiele anomalieën

Een vaak gehoord argument tegen het scheppingsmodel is dat de wereldwijde zondvloed niet zou kunnen zorgen voor de ‘stratigrafische differentiatie’ van fossielen. Dat wil zeggen: het verschijnsel dat veel families/geslachten alleen in bepaalde aardlagen voorkomen. Bijvoorbeeld Amaltheus (een ammoniet) komt alleen voor in het Vroege Jura (op de uniformitarianistische tijdschaal), terwijl Puppigerus (een zeeschildpad) alleen in het Eoceen voorkomt. In een ander artikel wordt uitgebreid ingegaan op de vraag hoe de zondvloed de volgorde in het fossielenarchief kan verklaren. In dit artikel wordt aangetoond dat de situatie lang niet zo ernstig is als het soms lijkt. Er zijn namelijk veel uitzonderingen: fossielen worden vaak gevonden in lagen waar ze volgens evolutionisten niet thuishoren.

Dit soort vondsten worden echter bijna altijd wegverklaard. Als een fossiel gevonden wordt in een te jonge laag, kan dit wegverklaard worden door te zeggen dat het oudere gesteente, waar het fossiel oorspronkelijk in zat, geërodeerd is en het fossiel vervolgens opnieuw bedekt is door (jonger) sediment. Dit wordt ‘reworking’ genoemd. Als een fossiel in een te oude laag wordt gevonden, kan dit wegverklaard worden door te zeggen dat er sprake is geweest van contaminatie met jongere fossielen.

Deze ad hoc verklaringen worden vooral gebruikt voor microfossielen (te klein om met het blote oog te zien). Wanneer deze verklaringen niet aannemelijk zijn (bijvoorbeeld contaminatie van oudere lagen door macrofossielen is volstrekt onaannemelijk), heeft men weinig keus dan te concluderen dat de stratigrafische range van de betreffende familie toch groter is dan aanvankelijk gedacht werd. Ook dit is een veelvuldig voorkomend verschijnsel.

Hieronder volgt een lijst met meer dan 200 voorbeelden van gepubliceerde ‘out-of-place’ fossielen. De tabel is afkomstig van een in 1982 gepubliceerd artikel van John Woodmorappe (An Anthology of Matters Significant to Creationism and Diluviology: Report 2, Creation Research Society Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 201-223). De meeste voorbeelden uit de tabel zijn gepubliceerd in de jaren ’70 en begin jaren ’80.

Dit is waarschijnlijk nog maar het topje van de ijsberg, want het is waarschijnlijk dat veel fossielen die in de verkeerde lagen worden gevonden, simpelweg niet worden gerapporteerd. En Woodmorappe vermeldde in zijn artikel: ‘The entries are examples only and do not represent a comprehensive literature search.

De meeste van de voorbeelden in de tabel worden wegverklaard a.d.h.v. ‘reworking’. Hoewel reworking niet onmogelijk is, zegt het toch iets dat men deze uitvlucht zo vaak nodig heeft. Het is goed mogelijk dat het idee dat veel families/geslachten gelimiteerd zijn tot een smalle stratigrafische range, gedeeltelijk kunstmatig in stand gehouden wordt door anomalieën op die manier weg te verklaren.

 

Type of Fossil: “Proper” Age: Found In: Location Ref.
Foraminifers Pleistocene Tertiary Atlantic Ocean 1
Pollen Tertiary Quaternary Bolkow, Poland 2
Pollen Tertiary Cretaceous East Netherlands 3
Mammal bones Tertiary (late) Tertiary (early) Kazakhstan, USSR 4
Algae (?) Tertiary Cretaceous France 5
Foraminifers Tertiary Cretaceous Nigeria 6
Nannoplankton Tertiary (lower) Tertiary (higher) Tabqa, Syria 7
Spores Tertiary (recent) Permian Southland, New Zealand 8
Spores Tertiary Pleistocene North Caspia, USSR 9
Foraminifers Tertiary Cretaceous North Italy (167) 10
Pollen Tertiary Pleistocene Yenisei, USSR 11
Palm wood Tertiary Jurassic Utah, USA 12
Foraminifers Tertiary (early) Tertiary (medial) Trinidad, West Indies 13
Foraminifers Tertiary (early) Tertiary (medial) Victoria, Autralia 14
Foraminifers Tertiary (early) Tertiary (medial) Hungary 15
Nannoplankton Tertiary (early) Tertiary (medial) Romania 16
Spores Tertiary (recent) Jurassic Louisiana-Texas, USA 17
Mammal bones Tertiary (early) Tertiary (medial) Northeast Siberia, USSR 18
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary Ionian Sea 19
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary West Israel (213) 20
Coccoliths Cretaceous Tertiary Crimea, USSR 21
Spores Cretaceous Tertiary Kazan, USSR 22
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary British Columbia, Canada 23
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Arctic Canada 23
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Fushun, China 23
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Shandong, China 23
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary South Coastal China 23
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Spitzbergen, Norway 24
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Ural Mts., USSR 24
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary West Siberia, USSR 24
Dinoflagellate Cretaceous Tertiary Australia 25
Nannoplankton Cretaceous Tertiary Glogow, Poland 26
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary Alabama, USA 27
Nannoflora Cretaceous Tertiary Zinda Pir, W. Pakistan 28
Pollen Cretaceous Pleistocene Yenisei, USSR 11
Nannoflora Cretaceous Tertiary Tang-E-Bijar, Iran 29
Foraminifers Cretaceous Jurassic Scania, Sweden (175) 30
Pollen Cretaceous Cambrian Holy Cross Mts., Poland 31
Nannoplankton Cretaceous Tertiary Ukraine, USSR 32
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Utah, USA (149) 33
Spores Cretaceous Pleistocene Newfoundland, Canada 34
Spores Cretaceous Tertiary Newfoundland, Canada 34
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary West Germany (?) 35
Spores Cretaceous Tertiary Czechoslovakia 36
Foraminifers Cretaceous Quaternary Adelie Coast, Antarctica 37
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary Austria 38
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary Sweden 39
Spores Cretaceous Tertiary Alps. Carpathians, Europe 40
Spores Cretaceous Tertiary West, southwest Pacific 41
Foraminifers Cretaceous Pleistocene Louisiana, USA (78) 42
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Venezuela 43
Pollen Cretaceous Tertiary Wyoming, USA 43
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary California, USA 44
Foraminifers Cretaceous Pleistocene Netherlands 45
Foraminifers Cretaceous Pleistocene Utah, USA 45
Foraminifers Cretaceous Tertiary England 39
Pollen Jurassic Permian Sariz, Antalya, Turkey 46
Spores Jurassic Tertiary Isle of Mull, Scotland 47
Spores Jurassic Precambrian Ukraine, USSR 48
Coccoliths Jurassic Silurian North Africa (153) 49
Pollen Jurassic Tertiary Utah, USA 33
Spores Jurassic Cretaceous Newfoundland, Canada 34
Pollen Jurassic Tertiary Newfoundland, Canada 34
Dinoflagellate Jurassic Cretaceous California, USA 50
Dinoflagellate Jurassic Tertiary California, USA 50
Spores Jurassic Cretaceous Perth Basin, Australia 51
Spores Jurassic Triassic Northeast Siberia, USSR 52
Pollen Jurassic Pleistocene Yenisei, USSR 11
Spores “Mesozoic” Pleistocene North Caspia 9
Spores Jurassic Permian Northeast Siberia, USSR (218) 52
Spores Jurassic Cambrian Northeast Siberia, USSR 52
Spores Triassic Cretaceous British Columbia, Canada 53
Spores Triassic (and/or older) Jurassic Yukon, Canada 54
Spores Triassic Cretaceous Alberta, Canada 55
Ostracodes Triassic Tertiary Hungary 56
Spores Triassic Jurassic Andoya, Norway 57
Conodonts Triassic Cretaceous Cameroons 58
Conodonts Triassic Jurassic Japan 58
Spores Triassic Tertiary Kutch, India 59
Pollen Triassic Tertiary Newfoundland, Canada (150) 34
Pollen Triassic Tertiary Utah, USA 33
Spores Triassic Cretaceous Perth Basin, Australia 51
Pollen “Mesozoic” Tertiary Atlantic Ocean 60
Spores “Mesozoic” Tertiary Hungary 47
Brachiopods Permian Triassic Salt Range, Pakistan 61
Conodonts Permian Triassic Salt Range, Pakistan 61
Pollen Permian Triassic Utah, USA 33
Spores Permian Cretaceous Kutch, India 62
Conodonts Permian Triassic Akasaka, Japan 63
Spores Permian Tertiary Kerala, India (155) 59
Spores Permian Tertiary Kutch, India 59
Spores Permian Cretaceous Madhya Pradesh, India 59
Pollen Permian Tertiary Nagaland, India 64
Spores Permian Cretaceous Alberta, Canada 56
Spores Permian Cretaceous British Columbia, Canada (238) 53
Fusulinids Permian Triassic Mine, Japan 65
Pollen Permian Triassic Southeast Siberia, USSR 66
Pollen Permian Tertiary Assam, India 64
Pollen Permian Tertiary Maghalaya, India 67
Spores Permian Triassic Somerset, England (90) 68
Pollen Permian Jurassic Kutch, India 69
Pollen Permian Tertiary South Australia 69
Pollen Permian Cretaceous Victoria, Australia 69
Ammonoids Permian Triassic KapStosch, Greenland 70
Spores Permian Tertiary Hungary 47
Spores Permian Cretaceous Perth Basin, Australia 51
Spores Permian Devonian Canning Basin, Australia 51
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Poland 71
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Sweden 71
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic England 93 71
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Scotland 71
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Latvia, USSR 71
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Denmark 71
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Baltic Russia 71
Spores Carboniferous Tertiary Arkansas, USA 72
Spores Carboniferous Cretaceous Perth Basin, Australia 51
Fusulinids Carboniferous Pleistocene Utah, USA 45
Pollen Carboniferous Triassic Devon, England 73
Spores Carboniferous Precambrian Onega, USSR 74
Spores Carboniferous Cretaceous Limburg, Netherlands 91 69
Spores Carboniferous Cretaceous Krakow, Poland 75
Pollen Carboniferous Tertiary Hungary 48
Pollen Carboniferous Tertiary Alabama, USA 48
Pollen Carboniferous Triassic Donets Basin, USSR 48
Pollen Carboniferous Jurassic Donets Basin, USSR 48
Spores Carboniferous Jurassic Germany 71
Spores Carboniferous Permian Pakistan 71
Acritarchs Carboniferous Tertiary Newfoundland, Canada 34
Pollen Carboniferous Devonian Missouri-Iowa, USA 76
Pollen Carboniferous Cretaceous Montana, USA 221 77
Pollen Carboniferous Tertiary Montana, USA 77
Conodonts Carboniferous Devonian Graz/Styria, Austria 78
Pollen Carboniferous Triassic Southeast Siberia, USSR 79
Spores Carboniferous Cretaceous Alberta, Canada 56
Conodonts Carboniferous (lower) Carboniferous (medial) New Mexico, USA 80
Spores Carboniferous Cretaceous British Columbia, Canada 53
Spores Carboniferous Permian Devonshire, England 81
Spores Carboniferous Triassic Devonshire, England 81
Fusulinids Carboniferous Triassic Mine, Japan 82
Spores Carboniferous Pleistocene Ohio, USA 181 83
Spores Carboniferous Permian Yukon, Canada 84
Brachiopod Carboniferous Permian Yukon, Canada 84
Pollen Carboniferous Permian Caucasia, USSR 85
Trilobite “Late Paleozoic” Tertiary Utah, USA 86
Spores Devonian Jurassic West Arctic Islands, Canada 87
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Missouri, USA 88
Spores Devonian Carboniferous Canning Basin, Australia 81
Spores Devonian Permian East West Australia 81
Crinoids Devonian Carboniferous Pamir Mts., USSR 89
Conodonts Devonian Silurian Texas, USA 188 90
Algal Cysts Devonian Cretaceous Northeastern Brazil 91
Pollen Devonian Permian Caucasia, USSR 85
Spores Devonian Carboniferous Yukon, Canada 182 84
Spores Devonian Permian Yukon, Canada 84
Spores Devonian Pleistocene Ohio, USA 83
Spores Devonian Jurassic West Arctic Islands, Canada 87
Spores Devonian Cretaceous British Columbia, Canada 53
Spores Devonian (medial) Devonian (upper) Belorussia, USSR 92
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Kansas, USA 93
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous New Mexico, USA 223 80
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Graz/Styria, Austria 78
Conodonts Devonian Tertiary Graz/Styria, Austria 78
Conodonts Devonian Pleistocene Graz/Styria, Austria 78
Brachiopods Devonian (lower) Devonian (medial) California, USA 94
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Kazakhstan, USSR 95
Conodonts Devonian Silurian Arkansas, USA 96
Chitinozoans Devonian Jurassic East Bhutan 97
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Nevada, USA 98
Foraminifers Devonian Carboniferous Nevada, USA 98
Spores Devonian Carboniferous Bolivia 143 99
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Devonshire, England 100
Acritarchs Devonian (and/or older) Carboniferous Newfoundland, Canada 34
Spores Devonian Triassic Devon, England 73
Conodonts Devonian Triassic Kockatea, Australia 51
Spores Devonian Cretaceous Otorowiri, Australia 51
Thelodont, Acanthodian Fish Scales Devonian Permian Canning Basin, Australia 51
Spores Devonian Cretaceous Perth Basin, Australia 51
Pollen Devonian Carboniferous Oklahoma, USA 101
Spores Devonian Carboniferous Belgium 102
Conodonts Devonian Permian Texas, USA 99 103
Algal Cysts Devonian Quaternary Lake Michigan, USA 104
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Texas, USA 105
Conodonts Devonian Carboniferous Oklahoma, USA 106
Acritarchs Silurian (and/or older) Devonian Witney, England 107
Acritarchs Silurian Devonian Belgium 102
Conodonts Silurian Carboniferous Oklahoma, USA 106
Pollen “Paleozoic” Precambrian Krivyi Rog, USSR 48
Pollen “Paleozoic” Tertiary Atlantic Ocean 108
Spores “Paleozoic” Tertiary Bolivia 99
Spores “Paleozoic” Pleistocene North Caspia, USSR 166 9
Spores Silurian Ordovician Ohio, USA 109
Chitinozoans Silurian Jurassic East Bhutan 97
Plant tissue Silurian (and/or younger) Ordovician Oklahoma, USA 110
Acritarchs Silurian Carboniferous Ballyvergin, Ireland 111
Crinoids Silurian Carboniferous Pamir Mts., USSR 89
Algal Cysts Silurian Cretaceous Northeast Brazil 91
Conodonts Silurian Devonian Texas, USA 90
Spores Silurian(?) Devonian Belorussia, USSR 92
Chitinozoans Silurian Cretaceous Alaska, USA 112
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Ontario, Canada 192 113
Conodonts Ordovician Devonian Minnesota, USA 114
Acritarchs Ordovician Tertiary Lough Neagh, Ireland 115
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Missouri, USA 116
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Carnic Alps, Italy 117
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Quibec, Canada 117
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Central Texas, USA 188 90
Diacrodians Ordovician Precambrian Saxony, East Germany 118
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Illinois, USA 119
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Illinois, Indiana, USA 120
Acritarchs Ordovician Carboniferous Ballyvergin, Ireland 191 111
Acritarchs Ordovician Silurian Ohio, USA 121
Acritarchs Ordovician Silurian New York, USA 121
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Central Siberia, USSR 122
Conodonts Ordovician Silurian Southeast Indiana, USA 123
Conodonts Ordovician (lower) Ordovician (medial) West Texas, USA 124
Graptolites Conodonts, Ostracodes Ordovician Devonian Missouri, USA 125
Acritarchs Ordovician Silurian Belgium 102
Acritarchs Ordovician Devonian Netherlands-Belgium 102
Conodonts Ordovician Carboniferous Oklahoma, USA 106
Spores Ordovician Carboniferous Oklahoma, USA 94 72
Conodonts Ordovician Cretaceous Colorado, USA 126
Acritarchs “Lower Paleozoic” Triassic Devonshire, England 73
Archeocyathids Cambrian Permian Dwyka, South Africa 127
Trilobites Cambrian (lower) Cambrian (medial) Bornholm, Denmark 128
Acritarchs Cambrian Silurian Comeragh 111
Acritarchs Cambrian Carboniferous Ballyvergin 111
Trilobites Cambrian Devonian Bielsko-Mogilany, Poland 129
Acritarchs Cambrian Ordovician Shropshire, England 130
Algae Precambrian Cambrian or Ordovician Verkhoyansk, USSR 131
Spores Precambrian Devonian Saratov, USSR 132

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